Friday, May 15, 2020
From the holocaust in Germany to the Rape of Nanking to countless other genocides and mass murders, humans seem to be more than willing to completely disregard the ideals they seek in a fair government and strip groups of humans of their most fundamental human right- the right to live. Although it is easy to attribute the organization of mass killing to a few evil or extraordinary individuals, these complex events need the support of entire nations of people. As history has shown, groups of people are willing and able to grow numb to mass murder and see this violation of basic human rights as normal and acceptable. In HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s Nazi Germany, the population was normalized to the mass murder of Jews because of advances of medicine and biology. These advances manipulated the publicsÃ¢â¬â¢ perceptions of Jews, assumptions about medicine, and values and eventually allowed everyday people to endorse this massive violation of human rights. These perceptions, assumptions, and values allowed the people of Germany to participate in a massive extermination of human rights without even realizing it. Advances in medicine changed the communityÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of Jews in a way that allowed for public support of their murder. In his work, Ã¢â¬Å"The Nazi DoctorsÃ¢â¬ , Robert Lifton detailed the rise of the Ã¢â¬Å"euthanasiaÃ¢â¬ movement which coincided with growing public fear and hatred of Jews. During the years leading up to the holocaust, Jews were seen as more than simply a race to be hated. Advances in medicineShow MoreRelatedThe Victims Of The Holocaust836 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHowever, one of the most infamous genocides to occur was the Holocaust. The Holocaust was the Ã¢â¬Å"massive destruction of European Jewry during World War II, when millions were systematically persecuted and exterminated solely because of their social, cultural, ethnic, or religious characteristicsÃ¢â¬ (Barel, Van Ijzendoorn, Sagi-Schwartz, Bakermans-Kranenburg). Contrary to popular belief, Jews were not the only group targeted in the Holocaust, as five million more lives were taken in grou ps other than theRead MoreThe Victims Of The Holocaust1467 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEventually, this can result in moral exclusion and these people are typically viewed as inferior, evil, or criminal.Ã¯ ¿ ½ In the holocaust, the Jews, in the eyes of Nazis, are a group of people that do not deserve moral consideration.Ã¯ ¿ ½ The Holocaust affected the lives of millions because of the hate inside of one certain group of people: the Nazi s.Ã¯ ¿ ½ The victims of the Holocaust provide an excellent example of individuals who suffered from the torment of this psychological process as, for a variety ofRead MoreThe Victims Of The Holocaust1073 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Many victims of the Holocaust, regardless of race, endured the same unethical punishment for having what the NaziÃ¢â¬â¢s believed to be wrong beliefs. Though Jewish people were the main target by the NaziÃ¢â¬â¢s, groups such as homosexuals, Gypsies, and JehovahÃ¢â¬â¢s Witnesses were also targeted. Locations that these people w ere imprisoned in varied from prisons to killing camps. There were multiple concentration camps, but certain ones had a greater importance due to their location, such as Sachsenhausen andRead MoreThe Victims Of The Holocaust1005 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesperson was fortunate to survive the agony of the Holocaust, one was left battered, broken, and in most cases asking why. Although the Jews, political dissidents, homosexuals, and other groups targeted by the Nazis will never get their lives back, they can gain some solace from identifying the perpetrators of the Holocaust and using that knowledge to ensure it never happens again. Many people share the burden of the crimes committed during the Holocaust, yet the three groups that can be allotted theRead MoreThe Forgotten Victims : The Holocaust1450 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The Forgotten Victims: The Consideration of Gay Victims of the Holocaust as Sufferers of Genocide Yasmina Lawrence CHG 381 P. Spitzer Friday June 3rd, 2016 During the reign of the Third Reich, the symbolization of the pink triangle was used to identify the thousands of gay prisoners who were sent to extermination camps under Paragraph 175, the law that criminalized homosexuality between men. Researchers say that an estimated 5,000 to 15,000 gay men died in these camps, however this figureRead MoreUndisclosed Victims of the Holocaust 774 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesUndisclosed Victims of the Holocaust When Germany was defeated in World War I by Britain and France they were forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles, which proclaims Germany to be responsible for all reparations of the War. It was easy for Hitler and his Nazi party to blame the wealthy Jews for not offering enough money to the country, but his anti-Semitism was completely aimed towards the Jews. By the end of 1920, the Nazi party had about 3,000 members according to A TeacherÃ¢â¬â¢s Guide to the HolocaustRead MoreVictims of Persecution and Muder in the Holocaust854 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesWhen the single word of holocaust is mentioned, it reminds us of the horrible genocide that took place. Many people in our world today are aware that the Jewish race was a major target in the holocaust, but what about the others who played a role in persecution? Even though the Jewish population is known to be the main victims of persecution and gruesome murder under the Nazi regime, it is not much mentioned of the others who took p art in genocide. According to the Holocaust Encyclopedia, during theRead MoreThe Holocaust: Non-Jewish Victims884 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescountry be dominant in a political sense, but that his Ã¢â¬Ëperfect raceÃ¢â¬â¢, the Ã¢â¬ËAryans,Ã¢â¬â¢ would be dominant in a cultural sense. His steps to achieving his goal came in the form of the Holocaust. The most well known victims of the Holocaust were of course, the Jews. However, approximately 11 million people were killed in the holocaust, and of those, there were only 6 million Jews killed. The other 5 million people were the Gypsies, Pols, Political Dissidents, Handicapped, JehovahÃ¢â¬â¢s witnesses, Homosexuals andRead MoreThe Little Known Victims of the Holocaust Essay795 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Little Known Victims of the Holocaust Many people look back on the Holocaust today and realize that so many abysmal and hideous things happened. The genocide of the Jews is known but what may be less well documented is HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s design to eradicate all groups other than the blue-eyed, fair-haired Aryans. So many of them were forgotten and just pushed in with the major race of the Jews, who were said to be unworthy of life. The people were not ready, nor expecting to be forced into such an egregiousRead MoreEssay on The Mischlinge: The Forgotten Victims of The Holocaust2506 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesThose of half and quarter Jewish descent remain largely forgotten in the history of the Third Reich and genocide of the Holocaust. Known as Mischlinge, persons of deemed Ã¢â¬Å"mixed bloodÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"hybridÃ¢â¬ status faced extensive persecution and alienation within German society and found themselves in the crosshairs of a rampant National Socialist racial ideology. Controversially, these people proved somewhat difficult to define under Nazi law that sought to cleave the Volk from the primarily Jewish Ã¢â¬Å"otherÃ¢â¬
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The effect of cognitive and perceptual load, cued attentional focus and stimulus rarity on attentional capture by abrupt-onset stimuli. ABSTRACT: Abrupt-onset stimuli have been observed to exhibit significant attentional capture effects, however the automaticity of this process has been questioned in recent literature (Yantis Jonides, 1990; Neo Chua, 2006). The current study examined the effect of pre-focused attention and stimulus frequency on attentional capture by abrupt-onset stimuli, in order to further explore the automaticity of this process. It was observed that abrupt-onset stimuli are effective in capturing attention, but the strength of this effect is greatly determined by other variables, including attentional focus and stimulus rarity; and in particular, cognitive and perceptual load (Minamoto et al., 2015; Lavie Tsal, 1994). It was concluded that attentional capture by abrupt-onset stimuli is not an automatic process as it fails to meet the load-insensitivity and intentionality criteria (Yantis Jonides, 1990). These findings lay a foundation for further attentional research, an important factor of educational psychology. The effect of cognitive and perceptual load, cued attentional focus and stimulus rarity on attentional capture by abrupt-onset stimuli. Attention is a cognitive phenomenon that describes an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to focus their awareness on salient external stimuli (Rensink et al., 1997). Automatic attentional capture, i.e.Show MoreRelatedLiterature Review : Cognitive Load1018 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMarch 2016 Literature Review Cognitive load is the degree of effort that an action requires for completion, associated with working memory and characterised by elements such as reaction time and accuracy, especially within the context of conflicting stimulus (Lavie, 2010). A facet of the load theory of attention, closely intertwined with concepts such as perceptual load, or how the degree of effort it takes to maintain focus on a specific stimulus, cognitive load can be seen to focus more heavilyRead MoreComparing Attentional Capture By Rare And Constant, Novel, Sudden Onset Stimuli1548 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesaffect attentional processes may be established. Based upon the experimental findings, it is proposed that when a sudden onset stimulus is both rare and novel, the attentional capture processes when perceiving these stimuli are influenced by perceptual load and modes of attention. Implications of these findings are discussed further in the paper. Attentional Capture by Rare and Constant Novel Sudden Onset Stimuli Attentional capture is controlled by top down, goal orientated processes, or byRead MorePerception and Attention Essay1869 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesawareness (Robinson-Riegler Robinson-Riegler, 2008). Perception and attention are two independent mechanisms relevant to one another. Attention is the state of focused awareness on a division of available perceptual information. This paper will explain the concept of perception, break down the perceptual organizational process, define the concept of attention, analyze the nature of the attention process and explain the relationship between perception and attention. Define the concept of perception Read MoreThe Automation And Its Effects On The Environment784 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesproblem to fix. The most common being that humans are typically drawn to situations that bias toward automation is natural, such as; choosing a path requiring less effort, natural trust in a system that has not failed previously, and the psychological effect of delegating tasks in a shared responsibility environment (Parasuraman Manzey, 2010). Compounding on the issue is that bias does not appear to be resolved by experience of the operator as it influences the natural human factors for which automationRead MoreAnxiety and Attention: The Gap in Research Essay3207 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesToday, cognitive psychologists know an extensive amount of information on our attention Ã¢â¬â our ability to divide our attention, our ability to selectively choose what we want to attend to and so on. It is agreed on that our cognitive load and resources are two of the influencing f actors when studying how attention works. In a normal-functioning mind, studying these two aspects may be enough to understand how our attention operates, but cognitive psychologists must delve much deeper than this whileRead MorePhysical Development And Child Development929 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageschild starts to develop, because it is the more physical and bigger movements for a child and baby to make. Physical development itself is Ã¢â¬Ëcomprising changes in body size (growth) and proportions, the order and acquisition of motor skills, and perceptual and motor capacitiesÃ¢â¬â¢ (Doherty and Hughes, 2009, p.8). This is why parents see physical development first, it is not just the movements that the children achieve it is also how fast they grow, Ã¢â¬Ëfrom birth to age 6 months, a baby may grow 1/2 toRead Moreaging Essay6944 Words Ã |Ã 28 PagesCOGNITIVE AND PERCEPTUAL FACTORS IN AGING AND DRIVING PERFORMANCE* Edward J. Rinalducci, Mustapha Mouloua, and Janan Smither Department of Psychology University of Central Florida Final Technical Report No. VPL-03-01 Visual Performance Laboratory Department Of Psychology University of Central Florida Orlando, Fl. 32816-1390 Technical Report submitted to the Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee under grant number 16-21-713 to the University of Central Florida and CATSS:Read MoreThe Validity And Reliability Of The Measure1042 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Wechsler scales are a measure used to assess intelligence of people; as with any measure, it is important to evaluate the validity and reliability of the measure. Intelligence, for psychometric tests, refers to the innate overall cognitive ability. There are four versions of the Wechsler scales: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children 4th edition (WISC-IV; Wechsler, 2003) for children aged 6-16, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Revised for children aged 4 - 6 1/2Read MoreLink Between Spatial Attention And Social Anxiety1480 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmechanisms which underlie such selective processing in models of anxiety(Clarke et al 2013). There are several different models of anxiety processing, however in this paper only the cognitive model of anxiety will be used. This model will be used because it uses both automatic and controlled processes that disrupts the cognitive economy to induces a state of anxiety. The model also gives an insight on the response on the physiological and behavioral changes that take place while undergoing the processRead MoreHow Does Distraction Affect Information Processing?1574 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestheir attention. Digging even deeper into the connection between distractions and attention, Lavie (2010) utilizes cognitive load theory to demonstrate that under conditions of high perceptual load, such as in the task of learning or repeating new information, distractions are especially debilitating to information processing. On the other hand, when the task has low perceptual load such that it does not use much working memory, information processing is not as affected. Theoretically, it is thus
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Personality And Emotions Assessment. Answer: The personality of an individual defines the activity, thinking and living style of the individual. The emotional behaviour of an individual highly affects the organisational behaviour of that person. The capacity to understand the emotion and manage it in an appropriate manner is called emotion management. A balanced emotional behaviour in work place can be beneficial in many ways such as proper collaboration among employees, happy and co-ordinated employees (Wilson, 2018). Inability in managing emotions has affected human life in many ways including the workplace. Emotionmanagement includes various aspects like self-awareness, motivation, self-management, empathy. Depending on these aspects, the emotion management capacity of an individual can be determined. In work place, emotional intelligence often makes the working easier for a person. A well-balanced emotional management, leads to proper expressing and managing, understanding, solving problems under pressure and maintaining a good relation in workplace (Kobayashi, 2018). Emotional behaviour can be assessed with various tools. The essay will include a complete study of my emotions assessment affecting my behaviour in workplace. It also contains the required recommendations that will help me to find a better scope in work place. The essay will broadly show my emotional assessment on negative and positive emotion, Habitual Emotion Regulation, Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire and emotional intelligence. I have scored 30 out of 50 in positive affect and 31 in negative affect in PANAS. This shows that I have a moderate positive affect and high negative affect in my work place. I have a moderate inter personal relationship with my colleagues in the work place. I have a positive attitude and interest towards my work place but it can be enhanced and increases to a stage where I will maintain a high positive behaviour towards my work. A moderate positive behaviour helps to achieve good production but if it is continued for long, it might decrease the work quality (Dutton Ragins, 2017). This attitude towards work is not bad but if it is continued then there might be chances for my positive attitude to drop. I have to work on it make it a high positive affect if I want to rise high in my job field. The behaviour t hat is existing in me currently might become dull in future and have an adverse affect in my career. Being a professional person, I must consider the positivity of my workplace and increase my interest towards my work. The essay also says I have a high negative affect. The main reason for my negative affect is my introvert nature. I am often stuck with myself thinking too much about what others might think. The scope of expressing my views, sharing my ideas or talking to my mates is very less, as I am very less interactive in my work field. Even though I try to give my best output in my work production but at times I face a lot of problems due to lack of communication. This is a major problem and can affect my career too. Lack of communication can lead a lot of confusion and misunderstanding in workplace (Unsworth, Dmitrieva Adriasola, 2013). The required changes that I might have made were to increase my communication skills and interact with my co-workers. I must actively co-oper ate with my co-workers so that even when I am facing some issues related to my work I might get the same co-operation from their side. Thus, to create a high positive emotion affect I must change my introvert nature and try to communicate and build a bond with my co-workers. The second emotion test was done on habitual regulations; it included expressive suppression, cognitive reappraisal, and authentic expression. My results showed that I have high cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression but a low authentic expression. I have a tendency to suppress my feelings and problems from others and that is reflected in my survey result. A conscious sense always works in me of disturbing others by sharing my problem, the person might not be disturbed yet the sense works in me. I am aware of my faults and drawbacks and sometimes I try to fight back them but most of the time the introvert nature in me binds me from communicating with other. Even when I know, where I have to makes changes I am unable to do so. My work production is highly affected due to this drawback, however, my self-consciousness sometimes rectifies the mistake and encourages me to sort the matter. Most of the time I am unable to resolve this problem leading to a low productivity scale. T his can negatively affect my career, as work field requires clarity and high productivity. If I do not change my habit of being self centred and expressive suppression, I might face a lot issues in the long run. I have a low score in authentic expression that is I am unable to express my views and issues with others. There are many issues faced by us in our daily life, the only way to resolve them is to sort them either by discussing or by taking an action (Cooper Marshall, 2013). In such cases I am often unable to react or share with anyone and feel stressed out in work place. This not only affects my behaviour but also my productivity. I am unable to respond to any problem or unethical respond from any one in work place. According to (Venkataramani, Labianca Grosser, 2013) reaction always reduces the stress, if a person is unable to react that might hamper their health. Thus, if I have to improve my emotional strength in workplace I must improve my expressing authenticity and re duce my suppressing nature. The next test was The Berkeley Expressivity test. The result has again shown a high negative expressivity and a low positive expressivity towards work life. It has also shown a low result for impulse strength. The test has again shown my negative approach towards work life. This does not mean I do not have an interest towards my work but it is a reflection of my introvert nature and less communicative behavior in my work place. The output that I give in work place is often denied or failure due lack of clarity. The main cause for rejections in work is mostly due to lack of understanding and misconceptions, which can be easily cleared by co-operation of co-workers or seniors (Schutte Loi, 2014). Due to my lack of expressivity and approaches, I could not understand the requirement and lead to failure. The survey also shows a low positive expressivity, the primary for this result is not my lack of interest in work life but my introvert nature. Often I am uncomfortable with my co-worker s and unable to mix with them as a result I feel left out and isolated in the work area. I have a low impulse strength, which means the push for an initiative, or responsibility is lacking in me. Even when I am interested for something I am unable to achieve it due lack of expressivity and impulse strength. The need for raising a voice or standing for a change is never present in me, even if I am interested for it. Thus, if I have to change this issue I must take initiative myself, take responsibilities and express my view for any incidents happening around me. This will not only increase my impulse strength but will also increase my interest towards work life. The last test was done on STEM the Situational Test of Emotion Management and STEU the Situational Test of Emotional Understanding. My STEM is similar to the US college student with a result of 0.529205 and my STEU result is similar to the Australian psychology university student with a result of 0.70833. The study shows that I have an average knowledge about managing and understanding the situational emotions and that is true in general. The basic issue that affects my behavior is the lack of communication and self-confidence. Many times, I feel that I could have taken the responsibility and achieved the goal but my lack of confidence never allows me to do so. I can understand my management skills are my strength and I have a better scope in future with them but once again, the communication issue stops me from reaching there. Being an increased self-aware person, I realize my drawbacks and faults, yet the initiative is never taken by me. I have analyzed the mistake that I general ly make in work environment yet I am unable to rectify them. The essay also says I have scored well in emotional understanding and thus it can be helpful to me to rectify my mistake. This particular test has increased my confidence level for making a change in my emotional behavior in work place. The test has clearly shown my capability to become interactive and expressive in work life. The management potentiality in me will help me to change myself and become more flexible in work life. Thus to conclude the test has highlighted my drawbacks in emotion management in work place. The test clearly shows how my introvert nature, low positivity, high negativity, lack of expressivity is affecting my work life. It is not only affecting my relation with my co-workers but also affecting the productivity in my work. The desired result in my work is not up to the mark due to lack of communication and clarity. My scopes in future are being narrowed due to lack of communication and relation with my co-workers. Todays work environment requires a lot of team activity and co-ordination for a better outcome, which lacks in me. I am unable to co-ordinate and co-operate with my co-workers and thus my work quality and productivity is hampered. The required changes have also been mentioned in the essay. If I increase my communication with my teammates and co-workers then there will be a scope of interest in work life. I must maintain a good relation with the workers to maintain a clarity in my work and if required I can also seek help from them. This will improve my work quality and productivity. I should also be more expressive in work field, as I am unable to express my feeling often I feel suffocated and stressed with work. This stress can be a serious threat to my health and in later future; it will reduce the work motivation in me leading to quit the job. Whereas, this is not a permanent solution to my problem, changing the work will not increase my interest towards work. I have to create a comfortable environment to sustain my work life. Thus, if I keep these facts in mind and make necessary changes in me I believe I will prosper more in my work life. References: Cooper, C. L., Marshall, J. (2013). Occupational sources of stress: A review of the literature relating to coronary heart disease and mental ill health. InFrom Stress to Wellbeing Volume 1(pp. 3-23). Palgrave Macmillan, London. Dutton, J. E., Ragins, B. R. (Eds.). (2017).Exploring positive relationships at work: Building a theoretical and research foundation. Psychology Press. Kobayashi, I. (2018).20 Keys to workplace improvement. Routledge. Schutte, N. S., Loi, N. M. (2014). Connections between emotional intelligence and workplace flourishing.Personality and Individual Differences,66, 134-139. Unsworth, K. L., Dmitrieva, A., Adriasola, E. (2013). Changing behaviour: Increasing the effectiveness of workplace interventions in creating pro?environmental behaviour change.Journal of Organizational Behavior,34(2), 211-229. Venkataramani, V., Labianca, G. J., Grosser, T. (2013). Positive and negative workplace relationships, social satisfaction, and organizational attachment.Journal of applied psychology,98(6), 1028. Wilson, F. M. (2018).Organizational behaviour and work: a critical introduction. Oxford University Press.
Tuesday, April 14, 2020
The Effect of Baroque Music Paper The Effect of Baroque Music on the Performance of Elementary Students on Problem Solving Task A Research Proposal Submitted to the Faculty College of Liberal Arts Western Mindanao State University In partial fulfillment of the requirements in Psychological Research I Submitted by: Lilibeth Grifon Christie Annie M. Jalaron Audraiza Macaraya Arlynn Mae Tangon Chapter I Introduction StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ lives today are filled with large variety of experiences by which they develop either positive or negative attitudes toward certain experiences. Eventually, these attitudes develop into a guide to their behavior. It has been noticed that most school learners are now musically inclined and the need to have a better teaching strategy to facilitate studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ learning abilities is the prime reason why researchers want to pursue this study. This study focuses on the application of background music in the classroom setting to find out if providing music in the environment can have a significant difference in learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ performance. The influence of music on rates of learning has been the subject of study for many years. Research has confirmed that loud, background noise hinders learning concentration, and information acquisition. Background music is used to provide a welcoming atmosphere and help prepare and motivate students for learning tasks. It can energize lagging attention levels or soothe and calm when necessary. Music in the classroom may have different effects, depending on the strengths and weaknesses of the pupils in the classroom. It may also depend on the existing level of noise at the school and surrounding area. We will write a custom essay sample on The Effect of Baroque Music specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Effect of Baroque Music specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Effect of Baroque Music specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Various researchers reported that kids seem to be vulnerable to excessive noise. For children who are sensitive, environmental noise can be a source of stress. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why for the past years, researchers experimented many ways of producing the healthiest sound possible. Several researchers have proven that classical and baroque music with some nature sounds are the most appropriate background music. Some amount of background music may be helpful in the learning process. Original studies in the used of music in learning show that Baroque music was optimal for learning. Another study showed that Baroque music accelerates learning, and enhance both short-term and long-term memory. Baroque music, with its unique rhythmic structure and stability, is particularly conducive to memory, productivity and healthy, stress-free environments (Lawrence, 2001). Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. The original meaning of baroque is irregular pearl. Baroque music forms a major portion of the classical music canon, being widely studied, performed, and listened to. Baroque composers include J. S. Bach, Antonio Vivaldi, Handel, Chopin, Pachelbel and Alboni. Background of the Study Mathematics is a subject where most learners have low achievement. Different reasons are presented on why learners have difficulty in dealing with math subjects. It even came to the point wherein learners cut classes during math subjects. Some respondents stated why they have low interest in math is because they get bored with numbers and teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s chalk-board strategy is even reinforcing their boredom. Problem solving is a process of thinking that is directed toward the solution of a specific problem. The process involves the use of problem solving skills. Yet the most difficult to teach in Mathematics is problem solving. Even high school students could hardly solve two-step problems. This is due to poor analysis and understanding of word problems. Proficiency in remediating the problem experienced by the students in this area is an essential skill of a competent educator (Miranda, 2004) One reason of boredom is the lack of interest but more so with the lack of environmental stimulation. Enriched environment is one of the most important factors that educators should look into for the reason that learners are widely curious with different stimuli that will encourage them to do their best in every endeavor. Several researches show that instrumental music can enrich environment and can cause stimulation to learners which is present in the change of their physiological processes. Review of Related Literature This section will discuss the study of the effect of background music in learning. It also includes literature and studies on the effect of music in learning performance. This section will provide scientific evidence that support the claim that music is related to the improvement of mathematical performance. (Tria, Limpingco, Jao, -) concrete operational stage is a period of concrete operational logical thought in number, class and orders (7-11 years old). The child becomes increasingly capable of demonstrating logical thinking in relation to physical objects. A newly acquired capacity of reversibility allow him or her to mentally reverse action that was previously only than physically. The child is now able to mentally hold two or more variables at a time when studying objects and to reconcile apparently contradictory data. He or she becomes more sociocentric, increasingly aware of the views of others. These new mental capacities are demonstrated by a rapid growth in the ability to conserve certain properties and to do relational thinking such as classifying and ordering objects. Mathematical operations are also developed. The child becomes increasingly able to think of physically absent things based on the vivid images of past experiences. The childÃ¢â¬â¢s thinking, however, is restricted to concrete thing rather than ideas. (Hurlock, 1982) stated in her book that educators call late childhood the elementary school age. It is the time when the child is expected to acquire the rudiments of knowledge that are considered essential for successful adjustment to adult life. It is also the time when the child is expected to learn certain essential skills, both curricular and extracurricular. Educators also regard late childhood as a critical period in the achievement drive Ã¢â¬âa time when children form the habit of being achievers, underachievers or overachievers. Once formed, habits of working below, above, or up to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity tend to persist into adulthood. It has been reported that the level of achievement behavior in childhood is highly corrected with achievement behavior in adulthood. As their world expands with their entrance into school, so do childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s interest. And with this broadening of interest comes an understanding of people and things which formerly had little or no meaning. Children now enter Piaget has called the Ã¢â¬Å"Stage of concrete operationsÃ¢â¬ in thinking, a time when the vague and nebulous concepts of early childhood become specific and concrete. With rapid growth comes a sapping energy. This leads to a disciplination to work and to attitudes of boredom toward any activities that require effort on the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s part. While underachievement after begins around the fourth or fifth grade in school, when early enchantment with school gives way to disenchantment, it generally reaches its peak during puberty. Barr and Seashore (as cited in Kong, 2005) says that it is easy to see how active listening can be applied to the steps for teaching toward conceptual change. Once a student has internalized the skills for active listening, they are primed for engaging in an active learning process. The exhibition of this capability is limited by the childÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to understand or apply himself to the task. It stressed that researchers and educators have further identified active listening and its component skills as being transferred across disciplines. The ability to listen effectively affects studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ chievement in school, and contributes to the success in life. Music among the multiple intelligences was found invaluable to develop studentÃ¢â¬â¢s abilities in listening. Insofar as the power of reflective thinking is concern, musical intelligences are like philosophical, mathematical or scientific intelligence. Hodges (2000) outlines the five basic premises that have been derived from neuromusical research. These premises establish a link between the human brain, the ability to learn and the capacity for resilient health. This research supports the long held supposition that music is beneficial to human beings. He states: (1) human brain has the ability to respond to and participate in music; (2) musical brain operates to respond at birth throughout life; (3)early and ongoing musical training affects the organization of the musical brain; (4) musical brain consists of extensive neural systems involving widely distributed, but locally specialized regions of the brain: cognitive components, affective components, and motor components. OÃ¢â¬â¢donell (1999) stated that Music from the baroque period causes the heart beat and pulse rate to relax to the beat of music. It affects the amplitude and frequency of brain waves, which can be measured by an electro-encephalogram. Music also affects breathing rate and electrical resistance of the skin. It activates the left and right brain, thus, maximizes learning and retention of information. The information being studied activates the left brain while the music activates the right brain. In addition, he also find out that listening to baroque music before taking a test releases neurons in the brain which will help the body to relax. Its effectiveness can be seen by the results from an IQ test performed on two groups of college students. The first group listened to Mozart music before taking the test. The second group did not listen to music before taking the test. The first group had an average of 119 while the second group had an average of 110 only. In addition, he stated that the key component of music that makes it beneficial is the order. The order of the music from the baroque and classical periods causes the brain to respond in special ways. This order includes repetition and changes, certain patterns of rhythm, and pitch and mood contrasts. The brain works by looking at the different pieces of information and deciding if they are different or the same. This is done in baroque and classical periods by playing a theme and then repeating and changing the theme. The repetition is only done once. More than one repetition causes the music to be come displeasing, and also causes the person to either enter a state of sub-conscious thinking or a state of anger. Accordingly, the human mind shuts down after three or four repetition of rhythm, or a melody, or a harmonic progression. Zatorre (as cited in OÃ¢â¬â¢donell, 1999) children pay close attention to subtle variations in tone and timing, which enables them to learn language accent perfectly. Likewise, musical people have increased aptitude in foreign language learning due to an advanced ability in perceiving, processing, and closely reproducing accent. When the brain processes music, this function extends over both hemispheric regions. The primary actuator in this connection is the acoustic cranial nerve which acts as a switching station for cranial nerves. In other words, the acoustic nerve channels not only sound from the ear, but also conduct other sensory inputs together, so our experience of the environment necessarily becomes a synthesis. Shaw and Bodner (as cited in Kliewer, 2003) included in their study the used of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to map the regions of a subjectÃ¢â¬â¢s brain that respond when listening to Mozart and Beethoven, and they found out that all types of music activates the auditory cortex, where the brain process sound, and sometimes trigger parts of the brain that are associated with emotion. But with Mozart and BeethovenÃ¢â¬â¢s music, the whole cortex is lighting up. Also, it activates areas of the brain involved in fine motor coordination, vision and other higher thought processes, all of which might be expected to come into play for spatial reasoning. Lawrence (2001) found that several studies used instrumental soothing music tends to help accelerate learning. Examples include the composition of Mozart, Vivaldi, Bach and Handel. These instrumental pieces are called concentration music or relaxation music. Baroque music, with its unique rhythmic structure and stability, is particular conducive to memory, productivity and healthy, stress-free environments. Studies for accelerated learning showed that Baroque music was optimal for learning. This music also provides health benefits such as lower muscle tension, lower blood pressure, and a slower pulse rate. Rauscher et al (1988) determined that listening to 10 minutes of Mozarts Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major briefly increased scores 48% (relative to control groups) on the paper-folding task, a component of the Stanford-Binet intelligence test that measures spatio-temporal reasoning abilities. Moreover, the effects were transient, lasting only about 10 minutes, and performance on non-spatial reasoning tasks was unaffected. Such results seem to be unique to the music of Mozart, whereas music not as highly structured did not have measurable effects. Other researchers have demonstrated that compositions of other classical composers such as J. S. Bach show similar benefits. Lozanov (1960) found that playing Baroque instrumental music (such as that of Handel and J. S. Bach) in the background while teaching foreign language vocabulary greatly increased students speed of learning and degree of memory retention. Music with a meter close to 60 beats per minute was found to be most effective; that this rate closely matches that of a relaxed pulse is thought to be significant. Merrill (1991) got 72 mice and divided them into three groups: the hard rock group, the Mozart group, and the control group who had no music at all. He placed the mice in aquariums, and then started playing music 10 hours a day. He put each mouse through a maze three times a week that originally had taken the mice an average of 10 minutes to complete. Over time, the 24 mice in the control group were able to cut about 5 minutes from their maze completion time. The Mozart mice cut their time back 8 1/2 minutes. The hard rock mice added 20 minutes to their time, a 300% increase in maze-running time from their original average. Unfortunately, the study did not go for long because all hard rock mice killed each other. Hardie (1990) studied the effect of music on mathematics anxiety and achievement. Two different environments were used while students took an Intermediate Algebra exam. One group took the exam in silence, while the other group listened to background music during the exam. There was a significant increase in anxiety for the students tested in silence. Ruvinshteyn and Parrino (as cited in Orel, 2007) says research over the past 40 years, Baroque music pulses between 50-60 beats per minute and has been shown to enhance learning of foreign languages and to improve performances in some types of tests. Because of this, the music has been widely marketed as a learning tool. The faculty members studied two groups of classes at Essex County College. In the first group, the instructor played baroque-style music in the background during the first semester. The second group, taught by the same instructors, was not exposed to music during class time. After the first month, surveys showed that students who listened to music were more likely to enjoy class (86 percent vs. 76 percent) and less likely to find mathematics challenging (33 percent vs. 46 percent). Similar changes were noted in both groups regardless of which instructor taught the course. Preliminary results also indicated an improvement in student grades. Weber (2007) stated that Baroque music accelerates learning and enhances both short-term and long-term memory. Physiological effects of Baroque music on learners includes lowering of the blood pressure slows heart beat, decrease of beta waves by 6% but increase of alpha waves by an average of 6%, and the right and left brain hemispheres of the brain synchronized. As the body becomes relax and alert, the mind is able to concentrate more easily. Mowesian and Heyer (1973) tested the basic arithmetic skills of tenth grade students under five different music style conditions: silence, rock music, folk music, classical-instrumental, and classical-vocal. No significant mean exam score differences were found among the five music conditions. They suggested that because music or some other distracter so frequently accompanies participants studying, music may be assumed to raise their morale (p. 108) and that music may make studying and test-taking less tedious, boring, and anxiety-producing (p. 108). Wolfe (1983) researched the use of four volume levels of music while computing mathematics problems. Participants, 200 undergraduate non-music majors, were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups. The groups were task only (no music), task plus background music at 60 Ã¢â¬â 70 dB, task plus background music at 70Ã¢â¬â 80 dB, and task plus background music at 80 Ã¢â¬â 90 dB. For the three music groups, the music consisted of four instrumental selections from motion picture sound tracks. The results indicated no significant difference in the number of problems completed by each group. Also there was no significant difference in the number of math problems completed correctly among the four groups. The participants were given a questionnaire concerning the effect of the loudness on their ability to complete the task. More participants in the 80 90 decibel music group felt that the loudness of the musical selections seemed to interfere with computing the math problems. Theoretical Framework This study anchors on the theory of human intelligence developed by psychologist Howard Gardner who suggested that there are several ways of perceiving and understanding the world that allow individuals to find and resolve problems they faced. This also interrelates the theory of Burrhus F. Skinner and Edward C. Tolman on the role of environment in learning. In 1983 Howard Gardner, psychology professor at Harvard University, presented his Multiple Intelligence theory based upon many years of research. Promoting the concept that intelligence is not one entity but that there are many different forms of intelligence, Gardner has awakened a revolution in learning. Multiple Intelligence teaching methods recognize eight (though there may be more) forms of intelligence: visual-spatial, linguistic, logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, musical, and most recently naturalist. Multiple Intelligence teachers strive to broaden studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ familiarity and skill levels in each area. In introducing musical intelligence, Gardner first stands back and identifies its basic core of objective features: rhythm, pitch, harmony, and timbre, but he soon moves closer to dwell on the mysterious emotional power of music. He then presents several kinds of evidence to support his theory that musical ability functions like intelligencewhat composers have called logical musical thinking and the musical mind. Musical abilities illustrate why Gardner rejects the simpler split-brain concept of mind. Although most musical abilities are located in the right hemisphere, trained musicians are likely to draw upon the left hemisphere in solving a task that the novice tackles primarily through the use of right hemisphere mechanisms. The Multiple Intelligence teaching model emphasizes education for understanding rather than rote memory or the mimicking of skills. Practical hands-on skill development is coupled with factual knowledge and the ability to apply skills and information in real-life situations and make meaningful contributions to society. Development of the musical intelligence can be greatly aided by the use of music throughout the curriculum. In addition to learning about musical elements and how to create music, the musical intelligence involves developing an ability to respond to musical sound and the ability to use music effectively in ones life. Edward C. Tolman (1886-1959), in his theory Sign/Purposive Learning indicates that cognitive processes are acquired relationships between environmental stimuli and responses. In his theory, the learner recognizes the significance of a stimulus and its different eatures. By following a series of recognizable signs toward a specific goal, learning becomes purposeful. His definition of stimulus is a perception, it is an environmental event that is processed by the organism, and definition of response is a learned behavior composed of performances. Burrhus F. Skinner (1904-1990), his theory Instrumental Learning contends that the most significant human behavior falls under the general heading of operant behavior, which means that there are observable stimuli that lead to human action. His basic approach is a functional analysis of the relationship between observable behavior and the external variables that identify those elements of the environment associated with the occurrence of a behavior or a response. Manipulation of the environment is involved to produce the desired behavior. Conceptual Framework Since learning is a function of the multiple intelligences inherent in the learner this study looks into the causal relationship between Baroque music and performance in Math problem task. It is said that music enhances the learning process. Figure I represent the conceptual framework of the study. Math Problem Solving ability is an aspect of the logical-mathematical and intelligence which could be affected by environmental stimulation such as the presence of Baroque music while doing a problem solving task. Gender and mental ability as possible factors that may affect problem solving ability are considered as control variables to eliminate their influence on the dependent variable in the study. The Problem Research What is the mean pretest score of the group exposed to Baroque music in the problem-solving task? What is the mean pretest score of the group not exposed to Baroque music in the problem-solving task? What is the mean posttest score of the group exposed to Baroque music in the Math Problem Solving task? What is the mean posttest score of the group not exposed to Baroque music in the Math Problem Solving task? Is there a significant difference in the mean pretest scores between the groups exposed to Baroque music and the group not exposed to Baroque music? Is there a significant difference in the mean posttest scores between the groups exposed to Baroque music and the group not exposed to Baroque music? Hypothesis The following hypothesis are tested in the study: There is no significant difference in the mean pretest scores between the groups exposed and unexposed to Baroque music. There is no significant difference in the posttest scores between groups exposed and unexposed to Baroque music. Definition of Terms Baroque Music- this term is associated with the era and the set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between 1600 to 1750. n this study it refers to the instrumental songs composed by Bach (Hapsichord Concerto in F Minor and Air on G String), Vivaldi (The Four Seasons), Albino (Adagio for Strings in G Minor), and Chopin (Nocturne for Piano No. 9). Performance in Math- this phrase refers to the score obtained in the problem-solving task designed to measure mathematical ability. Gender- refers to the sex of the person whether a girl or a boy. Significance of the Study This study is significant to parents because the results will give the them information how Baroque music can help in enhancing the mathematical ability of their children. Parents will encourage their children to appreciate Baroque music, and play it while reading, studying and doing homework. This also provides the teachers information that music is a powerful tool that they can use in the classroom to promote academic achievement and mental discipline. The intentional use of music in the classroom will set the scene and learning atmosphere to enhance teaching and learning activities. School administrators will know the necessary equipments to produce a better performance from their students. The recommendations made in this research are an attempt to find means and solutions to improve instructional facilities needed in subjects where Mathematics is concerned. Chapter II Methodology Research Design This study will utilize an experimental design to investigate the difference in the mathematical problem solving performance of pupils exposed to baroque style of music and those who are not exposed. The pre-test posttest non-equivalent comparison groups quasi-experimental design will be the method of investigation. This design is illustrated bellow: Group 1 01 X03 Group 2 02 04 The above diagram means that group 1 serves as the experimental group and receives the treatment (X). In this study X will be the baroque music. Group 2 will be the control group and does not receive the treatment. 01 and 02 correspond to the pretest while 03 and 04 correspond to the posttest of the control and experimental groups. Population and Sampling Procedure The total population of the Grade Six pupils of Zamboanga City Polytechnic State College is 34 and composed of only one section. Two groups will be used as respondents of the study, one for control and one for experimental. The assignment as to which one will be experimental or control will be done be random. Total enumeration will be used for the number of pupils in the class. Instrumentation An objective type of Math Achievement Test will serve as the instrument to measure Mathematical performance of Grade Six pupils. This will be administered at the start and end at the experimental sessions. Before the administration of the test the self-constructed Math test will be submitted to a panel of experts. Methodological Limitation This study is limited to the investigation of the effect of Baroque music to Mathematics Problem Solving test of the Grade Six Pupils of Zamboanga City State Polytechnic College, located at Baliwasan Chico, Zamboanga City. Data Collection Procedure A. Pre-experimental Phase Permission will be sought from the principal of the Elementary school of Zamboanga City State Polytechnic College to allow the researches to conduct the study. Preparation of the materials such as CD player and the disc containing the song/entitled Harpsichord Concerto in F Minor and Air on G String, The Four Seasons, Adagio for Strings in G Minor, Nocturne for Piano No. , which are Baroque style of musical copies of test instrument. Setting the classrooms that will be used in the conduct of experiments. The classroom setting shall be arranged in such a way that quiet, well ventilated and well-lighted conditions prevail. Discuss and orient with the Math teachers who will serve as confederates of the researchers. They will be briefed on the purpose and mechanics of the research project. This will be done after Math teachers consent to the proposal. B. Experimental Phase The experiment will begin upon opening the school year 2007-2008. he duration of the experimental will be for four weekly class sessions in Math subjects. The assignment as to which class will receive the treatment or serve as experimental groups and control group will be done by random. At the start of the experiment, the Math Achievement Test will be administered to both groups. Results of the test will serve as the pretest component of the experiment. Control Group Condition After the pretest has been conducted, the Math problem solving tasks of Math shall be done without background music. After four weeks a Math Achievement Test will be administered as posttest measure. Experimental Group Condition For this group, Math Problem Solving Task shall be done while baroque music is being played as background music. Data Analysis Procedure Data gathered from the study will be quantitatively analyzed through the use of descriptive and inferential statistics. Computation of the pretest posttest mean scores in the Math Achievement test will be conducted. Mean differences in the pre-test posttest Math Achievement scores between the experimental and control group will be analyzed using t-test.
Thursday, March 12, 2020
Strategic Management on Honda Motors Essay Example Strategic Management on Honda Motors Essay Strategic Management on Honda Motors Essay Off-Campus Executive Summary The key to a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s success is its fit between the organization and its environment. We study PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces and PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Value Chain activities for HondaÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic planners to analyse the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s role in itself and how it copes with the environment. The strategic plannerÃ¢â¬â¢s role is to forecast and direct the organisation into future strategies. HondaÃ¢â¬â¢s market positioning faces many challenges for example, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s core competencies in engine design and its engineersÃ¢â¬â¢ pursuit of technological mastery are not in accordance with market demand. ondaÃ¢â¬â¢s positioning is not moving beyond the conservative Civic and Accord models, despite attempts to come up with other innovative cars. How the global automobile industry configures its activities across borders is largely dependent on how it deals with the opposite demands of global integration of activities and handles deman d for local responsiveness. Prof. WhittingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s Classical and Processual Schools of Thought identifies with how differently strategies are developed. On one hand, strategic managers would like to forecast the future and to orchestrate plans to prepare for it. On the other hand, experimentation, learning and flexibility are required to deal with unexpected future events. The two model are applied on Honda Motors and we analyse which one is more suitable for Honda Motors. Global strategic management is conducted by managers all over the world. Its success depends on clear communication and understanding between them. The cultural dimensions are discussed from five aspects. They are power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance and long term/short term orientation. In the systemic perspective, the international strategic manager at Honda Motors will take into account the cultural dimension in building productive relationships. Table of Contents Individual Assignment Case Study Ã¢â¬â Reconciling Managerial Dichotomies @ Honda Motors in De Wit Meyer (2004:671) Ã¢â¬Å"Structural transformation through E-BusinessÃ¢â¬ Module Leader: Dr. Augustus Osseo-Asare Submission Date: Monday, 10th January 2011 Word Count: 3,000 words SIM336 Strategic Management Sunderland Business School
Monday, February 24, 2020
Apple's climb back from the depths of bankruptcy - Essay Example To rescue the company from this mess, the marketing manager ought to have used marketing mix appropriately as follow:- Apple should have used the correct promotional mix for their product. This mix concerns how the Apple should have made their product known to the market. This involves the use of advertisements, direct selling, public relations and sales promotion. When an appropriate promotion is used to make the product to be known to the market, it creates a big impact on the sales since customers will be aware of the existence of the product and they will not only buy it but also recommend it to their friends and relatives. The kind of a product that will be produced by Apple creates a very big impact on the sales. For this case, product planning and marketing for Apple should be done appropriately to ensure the concern of the market is addressed. Apple Company should have ensured their products are distributed on time to the market so that they are available at the market when they are needed by the customers. For this case, the distribution channel to be used by the company plays a big impact on the success of the company. Apple Company must have ensured their products were distributed to a wide geographical location to increase the market share. Why do you think companies like Sony, which were already well known for Walkman and Discman technologies did not move into the MP3 player market more quickly Why was it left to Apple to aggressively move into the digital music player and distribution market Before a company can move to a new technology, they must weigh a number of options like the impact the technology would have on the industry. For this case, companies such as Sony which was well known for Walkman and Discman technologies could not move into the MP3 player market without first of all knowing the impact the technology would have on the music industry. By conducting a feasibility study on the impact the new technology would have in the market, it ensured that they were aware what the market needs and wants were and it would also have given them a chance to clear out the stock of their old products. If Sony just moved into the MP3 player market without being sure of the impact, it would have been risky for them since before a technology is accepted in the market, it might take some time and sales would have been low. Having waited for the technology to be accepted in the market, it ensured that their market share and sales would remained high. Question 3 The average cost of an iPOd nano with 8MB memory is 125. The average cost of a Creative Zen Micro with 8MB is 85. Both play digital music and both are equally rated on sound quality and battery duration. So what explains a huge price premium The prices that have been set for the two products seem to be different with a difference of 40 whereas they have the same capacity. For a company to have a high market share for their product, they must ensure that they have a number of brands each having different price with the other. There are customers who associate prices with quality. They believe that the high the price,
Saturday, February 8, 2020
Analysis Of Harry Potter - Essay Example Interpretation in this context would imply an explanation or way of explaining, for instance, something that is open to a number of interpretations. Therefore, the discussion follows the following structure,ReceptionThe reception section of the Harry Potter and Fandom primarily entail the literary criticism based on British editions of the Seven Harry Potter books.Demand Thegreatdemandfor Harry Potter book motivated the New York Times to create a separate best-seller list for childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s literature min 2000, just before the release of Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. By June 2000, RowlingÃ¢â¬â¢s novel had been on the list for 79 weeks with the first three books each being on the hardcover best-seller list. By April 2007, Barnes and the Noble declared that Deathly Hallows had broken its pre-order record with over 500,000 copies pre-ordered through its site. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, with 8.5 million, which was then shattered by Half-Blooded Prince with 10. 8 million copies. Awards Honors and Recognition Harry Potters work has received various awards, honors, and recognition. The Harry Potter series have been the recipients of a host of awards since the initial publication of PhilosopherÃ¢â¬â¢s Stone encompassing four Whitaker Platinum Book Awards, Andal-were granted in 2011. Harry Potter honors include a commendation of for the Carnegie Medal (1997) and a short listing of the Guardian ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Award (1998). Factors for Criticisms